Amnesty International Annual Report 2010 :


27 May 2010



Head of state: José Manuel Ramos-Horta
Head of government: Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão
Death penalty: abolitionist for all crimes
Population: 1.1 million
Life expectancy: 60.7 years
Under-5 mortality (m/f): 92/91 per 1,000
Adult literacy: 50.1 per cent

Impunity persisted for grave human rights violations committed during Timor-Leste’s 1999 independence referendum and the previous 24 years of Indonesian occupation. The judicial system remained weak and access to justice was limited. The police and security forces continued to use unnecessary and excessive force. Levels of domestic violence remained high.


In February, the UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend its mission for another year. In September, a National Commission for the Rights of
the Child was established and the government signed the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. All 65 camps for internally displaced people were officially closed during the year. However, around 100 families remained in transitional shelters.

Justice system

In June, a new Penal Code came into force which incorporated the Rome Statute provisions but was insufficient to challenge impunity for past crimes.
The Penal Code made abortion a punishable offence in most cases. A Witness Protection Law which came into force in July contained some serious shortcomings, such as the failure to include victims of crime under the definition of “witness”. In spite of an increased number of judges and lawyers in the districts, access to justice remained limited.

Police and security forces

There were at least 45 allegations of human rights violations committed by the police and eight by the military, in particular ill-treatment and unnecessary or
excessive use of force. Accountability mechanisms for the police and military were weak. Holding accountable those responsible for the 2006 violence,
which erupted after the dismissal of one third of the country’s military, remained slow and incomplete but a number of cases were investigated, awaited trial or completed. No members of the security forces were held accountable for the violence during the 2008 state of emergency.

Violence against women and girls

High levels of sexual and gender-based violence remained. Women reporting violence were often encouraged to resolve the cases through traditional
mechanisms, rather than seeking remedy through the criminal justice system.


Reports by both the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR) and the Indonesia-Timor-Leste Truth and Friendship Commission (CTF)
documenting human rights violations had not been debated in parliament by year’s end. However, in a positive move, a parliamentary resolution on the
establishment of a follow-up institution on the CAVR/CTF recommendations was passed in mid- December. The Prosecutor General did not file any
new indictments based on findings of the UN Serious Crimes Investigation Team into crimes committed in1999. Only one person remained in jail for these crimes.

• On 30 August, the government released Martenus Bere, amilitia leader indicted by the UN for crimes against humanity committed in 1999. He returned – a freeman – to Indonesia in October.

In August, the President rejected calls to set up an international tribunal for past crimes. In September, a National Victims’ Congress called for an international tribunal.

Amnesty International visits/report

• Amnesty International delegates visited Timor-Leste in June and July.
• ‘We cry for justice’: Impunity persists 10 years on in Timor-Leste (ASA 57/001/2009)


Chefe Estadu: José Manuel Ramos-Horta
Chefe Governu: Kay Rala Xanana Gusmao
Pena Kapital: Abolisaun ba Krime Hotu
Populasaun: 1.1 Millaun
Esperansa Moris: 60.7
Tinan 5 ba kraik ninia mortalidade (m/f): 92/92 kada 1,000
Literasia adultu: 50.1 pursentu

Impunidade iha nafatin ba violasaun todan kontra direitus umanus nian ne’ebe halo duranti prosesu referendu ba independensia nian iha tinan 1999 no duranti tinan 24 okupasaun Indonesia nian. Sistema judisiariu nafatin sai fraku no aksesu ba justisa limitadu tebes. Polisia no forsa siguransa kontinua uza nafatin forsa desnesesariu no esesivu. Nivel violensia domestika mos nafatin sai a’as.


Iha fulan Fevereiru, Konsellu Siguransa Onu vota ho unanimidade atu hanaruk ninia misaun ba tinan ida tan iha Timor-Leste. Iha fulan Setembru, Komisaun Nasional ba Direitu Labarik estabelesidu no governu asina Protokolu Opsional ba Konveniu iha Direitu Ekonomiku, Sosial no Kultural. Hamutuk 65 kampu refugiadus maka taka ofisialmente duranti tinan ida ne’e nia laran. Maibe, familia hamutuk ho total 100 hanesan ne’e sei nafatin hela iha baraka tranzisional.

Sistema Judisiariu

Iha fulan Juñu, Kódigu Penal foun promulgadu no inkorporadu hamutuk ho Provizaun Estatutu Roma nian, maibe ida ne’e insufisiente atu kontra impunidade ba krime pasadu sira ne’ebe ema komete. Kódigu Penal ne’e konsidera prátiku abortu kastigavel iha kazu barak. Lei Protesaun ba Testemuña ne’ebe promulgadu iha Fulan Jullu kompostu imperfeisaun seriu balun, hanesan fallansu atu inklui vítima krime sira iha definisaun “testemuña” nia laran. Maski iha kuantidade juiz no avogadu iha Distritu sira ne’ebe aumenta, maibe aksesu ba justisa sei nafatin sai limitadu ba ema.

Polisia no Forsa Siguransa

Iha barak ka oituan 45 (ha’at nulu resin lima) alegasaun ba violasaun direitus umanus ne’ebe halo husi Polisia, no 8 (walu) husi militariu sira. Partikularmente sira komete maltratu no forsa desnesesariu ka esesivu. Mekanizmu responsabilidade ba Polisia no Militariu fraku hela. Prosesu lori ba responsabilidade ema sira ne’ebe responsavel ba violensia tinan 2006, ne’ebe akontese depois demisaun husi um tersu membru militariu nian, sai nafatin neneik no inkompletu maibe kazu balun investigadu ona, sei hein hela julgamentu ka kompletu ona. Laiha membru forsa siguransa ida maka responsabiliza ba violensia sira ne’ebe mosu duranti estadu sitiu tinan 2008 nia laran.

Violensia kontra feto no feto ra’an sira

Nivel violensia seksual no jeneru-bazeadu ida ne’ebe a’as sei iha nafatin. Kazu violensia kontra feto dalabarak hetan solusaun liu husi mekanizmu tradisional, liu fali buka solusaun ida ne’ebe tuir dalan sistema justisa kriminal nian.


Relatoriu husi Komisaun Rua, Komisaun Simu Malu, Lia Lo’os no Rekonsiliasaun (Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation-CAVR) no Komisaun ba Lia lo’os no Amizade (Timor-Leste Truth and Friendship Commission-CTF) ne’ebe dokumenta violasaun direitus umanus seidauk hetan debate iha tinan ikus parlamentu nasional nian. Maibe mudansa pozitivu ida maka, rezolusaun parlamentu kona-ba estabelesimentu ba instituisaun ne’ebe sei prosesu rekomendasaun husi CAVR/CTF pasa iha fulan Dezembru nia klaran. Prokurador Jeral la rejista akuzasaun foun sira ne’ebe bazeadu ba faktus rezultadus sira ne’ebe Unidade Investigasaun Krime Seriu Nasoens Unidas nian (ONU) hetan ba iha kategoria krime nian ne’ebe halo iha tinan 1999. Ema ida de’it maka agora tama kadeia iha Timor-Leste tamba krime sira ne’e.

• Iha loron 30 fulan Agustu, governu husik Maternus Bere livre, lider milisia nian ne’ebe akuzadu husi ONU relasiona ho Krime sira kontra umanidade ne’ebe halo iha tinan 1999. Nia sai livre ba Indonesia iha Outubru.

Iha fulan Agustu Presidenti Republika rejeita pedidu sira hodi estabelese tribunal internasional ba krime pasadu. Iha Setembru, Kongresu Nasional vitima sira nian husu ba estabelesimentu tribunal internasional.

Amnesty International nia vizita/relatoriu
• Amnesty International nia delegasaun sira halo vizita ba Timor-Leste iha fulan Juñu no Jullu.
• ’Ami Tanis ba Justisa”: Impunidade iha nafatin ba tinan 10 nia laran iha Timor-leste (ASA 57/001/2009)

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