TIMOR-LESTE: Falling short on MDGs*
More children are surviving, but most MDGs still far from being met
BANGKOK, 21 February 2012 (IRIN) - The Southeast Asian half-island nation of Timor-Leste is falling short on most Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), experts warn. 

“The areas that remain challenging or off-track compared to the 2015 targets include poverty, underweight children, maternal mortality and sanitation,” Felix Piedade, the national adviser of Timor Leste’s MDG Secretariat, told IRIN. 

Timor-Leste gained independence from Indonesia to become one of the world’s youngest nations in 2002 after a 25-year civil war. Six years of instability followed. 

Due to Timor-Leste’s recent violence, which included attacks on the president and prime minister in 2008  and a military uprising in 2006, the UN chose it as one of nine countries worldwide to receive extra support in meeting the MDGs. 

While Goal 1 includes halving the proportion of people living on less than US$1 a day, in Timor-Leste that population actually grew from 36 percent in 2001 to 50 percent in 2007, according to Piedade. 

As of 2009, the rate dropped to 41 percent, still not close to meeting the goal of 14 percent set in 2004. 

But there have been some improvements. 

“Timor-Leste has surpassed the MDG target for 2015 for both under-five mortality rate [96/1,000 live births] and infant mortality rate [53/1,000 live births] based on targets set in 2004,” Piedade said. 

The country is on track for only two of the other eight MDGs: achieving universal primary education, and promoting gender equality and empowering women, according to the UN Development Programme. 

GenderBut measuring progress can be tricky. 

“When you talk about gender here, there are different indicators,” said Silvia Cormaci, a gender expert in Timor-Leste. 

Cormaci noted advances have been made in improving the political participation of women, who now comprise 29 percent of parliamentarians - among the highest proportion in Asia. 

A new law has been passed requiring that one in three candidates in the June-July 2012 parliamentary election must be a woman. 

“But 70 percent of women work in unpaid work in agriculture. And there’s big issues on domestic violence, one of the highest rates in Asia,” said Cormaci. 

Nationally, 38 percent of women aged 15-49 reported experiencing violence since age 15, according to the government’s most recent demographic health survey 

Thirty-six percent of the women who were, or had been, married reported violence - physical, sexual, or emotional - by a husband or partner. 

Widespread rape and sexual assault of women and children went largely unpunished during the military occupation. 

Domestic violence has technically been a crime since 2009 under the penal code, but it was not until 2010 that a law clearly defined the crime and mandated victim support services. 

“A lot of work has been done to train police on the law,” Cormaci added. “The problem is that many people still turn to traditional justice as a means of settling their disputes. So you have [a] good domestic violence law there, but implementation is much harder.” 


*This is an edited version of the original posting from 15 February

Source: IRIN News

Angola: CPLP Hopeful About Peaceful Election in East Timor

New York — The Portuguese Speaking Community (CPLP) expressed hope for peaceful presidential and legislative elections in East Timor, Angop learned.
This was expressed by the trade attaché of the Angola's Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, the counsellor minister António Coelho Ramos da Cruz.
The diplomat was speaking on behalf of the CPLP, currently under Angola's chair, at the meeting of the Security Council on East Timor.
"CPLP is optimistic about the country's political stability reflected in the preparation of the political parties for the electoral contest (...), in a peaceful and exemplar atmosphere of the respective congresses and supports the Government's initiatives concerning the stabilisation and reconciliation through an institutional dialogue," said the Angolan diplomat at the session witnessed by the Timorese president, José Ramos-Horta.
According to Ramos da Cruz, CPLP will remain engaged in the excellent cooperation with East Timor toward the strengthening of stability of its institutions and growth of its economy.
In his turn, president José Ramos-Horta assured that East Timor that is celebrating the 10th anniversary of its independence this year, will hold presidential and legislative elections in an environment of peace, with the participation of 13 presidential candidates and 24 political parties.
This statement was seconded by the special representative and head of the United Nations Mission to East Timor, Ameerah Haq, who said there is stability in the country that ensures peaceful elections and a smooth transition to a new Government.
Meanwhile, in his report on East Timor, the UN secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, recommends the Security Council to extend the world body's mission to that country until December 31 this year.
Source: Angola Press

Security Council extends UN presence in Timor-Leste until end of 2012

Security Council in session. UN Photo/Ryan Brown
23 February 2012 – 
The Security Council today extended until the end of 2012 the mandate of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste so that it can continue to help promote peace, stability and development in what is expected to be a very eventful year for the country.

Until its expected departure on 31 December, the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) will assist with key tasks such as institutional development and capacity-building of the national police, known as the PNTL, as well as provide electoral assistance.

This year Timor-Leste will celebrate the 10th anniversary of its independence and hold presidential elections on 17 March, followed by a legislative poll at the end of June.

In a unanimously adopted resolution, the Council endorsed the plan of UNMIT’s phased drawdown, “in accordance with the wishes of the Government of Timor-Leste, conditions on the ground and following the successful completion of the 2012 electoral process.”

It also urged all parties in the country, particularly political leaders, to continue to work together and engage in political dialogue and to consolidate peace, democracy, rule of law, and sustainable social and economic development; promote human rights; and advance national reconciliation.

Ameerah Haq, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIT, told the Council yesterday that Timor-Leste has made significant progress in strengthening national peace and stability and that preparations for the upcoming elections are going smoothly.

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will, after consulting with the Government formed after the elections, submit a report to the Council on his suggestions on UNMIT’s anticipated withdrawal and the scope of the UN’s future presence in Timor-Leste.

Angola: Country to Open Embassy in East Timor

Luanda — Angola will open a diplomatic representation in East Timor soon, as part of the effort Luanda and Dili are making to "restore the historical relations of privilege" that unite the two countries.
This was said Wednesday in Luanda by the commercial attache of East Timor Embassy in the Angolan capital, Elda Ferreira.
Elda Ferreira was speaking to Angop about the preparations for the presidential elections set for March 17 this year in that Asian country.
According to Elda ferreira, the opening of an Angolan embassy in Dili might take place after the legislative elections in east Timor set for June this year.
"I can assure that after the legislative election of June (in East Timor), Angola will have a resident embassy, because this country has a proper history in the relations of East Timor with the rest of the world," said the diplomat.
She stated that the history of privileged relations between the two countries started in 1975, when Angola became the first country to recognise East Timor as an independent nation.
The diplomat also recalled how Angola accepted the opening of an East Timor diplomatic representation in Luanda, following the occupation of the country by Indonesia.
Source: Angola Press


Security Council Meets on Timor-Leste
A wide via of the Security Council as it meets on the situation in Timor-Leste.
22 February 2012
United Nations, New York
UN Photo/Mark Garten
The Judicial System Monitoring Programme (JSMP), KontraS (the Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence), and Amnesty International has direct a Joint Open Letter to the UN Security Council to urge the Security Council to take immediate and effective steps to address the continuing impunity for crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations which occurred in Timor-Leste under Indonesian occupation. Here is the full statement published at ETAN official page.

The Judicial System Monitoring Programme (JSMP), KontraS (the Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence), and Amnesty International are writing to urge the Security Council to take immediate and effective steps to address the continuing impunity for crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations which occurred in Timor-Leste (then East Timor) under Indonesian occupation (1975-1999).

This is a crucial time for such action, as the Security Council considers the renewal of the mandate of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), due to expire on 26 February 2012, and begins to plan for a post-UNMIT UN engagement in Timor-Leste after 2012.

Our organizations based in Timor-Leste, Indonesia and the United Kingdom respectively are gravely concerned about the ongoing failure to bring to justice over 300 individuals accused or convicted of crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations in Timor-Leste during 1999. They are believed to be living in Indonesia, yet the authorities there have refused to co-operate with the UN-sponsored justice system in Timor-Leste and extradite their nationals suspected of crimes under international law.


In a recent case, Valentim Lavio, a former militia member, was found guilty of murder as a crime against humanity by the Dili District Court, but escaped to Indonesia in October 2011. Valentim Lavio, a former Besi Merah Putih (Red and White Iron or BMP) militia member, was sentenced to nine years imprisonment on 8 July 2011 for the murder of Patricio Sarmento Viegas in Liquiçá District on 6 September 1999. Lavio was not detained during the pre-trial, trial or appeal stages, despite local non-governmental organizations and the victims family having expressed concern that he might flee. His appeal was rejected by the Court of Appeal on 26 September 2011 and a warrant for his arrest was issued by the Dili District Court on 17 October 2011 and transmitted to the Liquiçá District Police on 20 October 2011. However, the Timorese authorities have confirmed that police were unable to detain him because he had fled to Indonesia.

This case bears similarities to that of Martenus Bere, which has been the subject of at least two previous letters from Amnesty International to the Security Council (letters Ref:40/2011.139 of 8 August 2011; and 40/2010.040 of 22 February 2010). Bere had been charged by the UN Special Panels with the extermination of civilians and other crimes against humanity committed in 1999. However, he was released in August 2009 following a request by the Indonesian government and subsequently transferred to West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, a safe haven from prosecution.


Valentim Lavios case is the only one submitted by the UNMIT Serious Crimes Investigation Team (SCIT) to the Timor-Leste Office of the Prosecutor-General which has been tried and prosecuted so far. Concerns have been raised about the relationship between SCIT and the Office of the Prosecutor-General, most recently in a December 2011 report by the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (WGEID) which observed a lack of communication and cooperation between the Serious Crimes Investigation Team and the Timor-Leste Office of the Prosecutor-General on cases that are being investigated and those handed over for prosecution.

1 Further, SCITs mandate is limited to investigating serious human rights violations committed in Timor-Leste in 1999.
2 The ongoing failure to ensure justice for past crimes raises serious concerns about the ability and willingness of the Timorese and Indonesian authorities to deal with them. It confirms the need for the international community to step in and establish an international criminal tribunal to prosecute these crimes, as recommended by the 2005 UN Commission of Experts report.

3 In the report, the Commission recommended that the Security Council adopt a resolution under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to create an ad hoc international criminal tribunal for Timor-Leste, if genuine steps had not been taken towards holding to account those responsible for crimes against humanity and war crimes in Timor-Leste.

4 As the above cases demonstrate, over six years later, such steps have been grossly inadequate.


JSMP, KontraS and Amnesty International are also concerned about the continued failure of the Indonesian and Timorese governments to provide full and effective reparation to victims and their families. The Government of Indonesia must take full responsibility for crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations committed by its agents during its occupation of Timor-Leste and in 1999. We welcome the recommendation of the UN Secretary-General in his most recent report that the Timorese Parliament debate two draft laws establishing a national reparations programme and a Public Memory Institute.

5 The enactment of these laws would be a positive step towards implementing key recommendations made in the report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação, CAVR) and the report of the Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF). However, we are disappointed at the recent decision by the Timorese Parliament to postpone debate on these two draft laws for a third time since they were presented in June 2010.


We welcome ongoing efforts to plan for and map out a UN presence in Timor-Leste after the proposed end of UNMITs mandate in 2012. In particular we welcome identification of the need for a continued international human rights presence in Timor-Leste.6 We encourage the Security Council to instruct UNMIT and other relevant UN bodies to consult as widely as possible in determining the future nature and size of the engagement, including with stakeholders from civil society, religious and community leaders, victims and their families, as well as government and UN officials in Timor-Leste.

As the Security Council considers UN engagement in Timor-Leste beyond 2012, we urge you to ensure that providing justice for the victims of crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations is central to the final decision on the nature and size of this engagement. Victims, their families, Timorese and other non-governmental organizations continue to call for justice, truth and reparation for these past crimes. Pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1264 and 1272 and subsequent resolutions demanding that persons responsible for acts of violence in 1999 be brought to justice, JSMP, KontraS and Amnesty International urge the Security Council to establish a long-term comprehensive plan to end impunity and to provide victims with full and effective reparation. As part of that plan, the Council should establish an international criminal tribunal with jurisdiction over crimes committed in Timor-Leste during Indonesian occupation (1975-1999). Such a tribunal should be able to ensure justice in representative cases and, in doing so, act as a catalyst for national justice in others. Furthermore, the longterm and comprehensive plan should ensure that victims of human rights violations between 1975 and 1999 are provided with full and effective reparations.

1 Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, Mission to Timor-Leste, A/HRC/19/58/Add.1, para 43.
2 Security Council Resolution 1704 (2006), S/RES/1704, para 2(i).
3 Report to the Secretary-General of the Commission of Experts to Review the Prosecution of Serious Violations of Human Rights in Timor-Leste (then East Timor) in 1999, S/2005/458.
4 Above n3 at Annex I, para 29.
5 Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (for the period from 20 September 2011 to 6 January 2012), S/2012/43, para 62.
6 Above n5, para 55.

At the upcoming Security Council session renewing UNMITs mandate, JSMP, KontraS and Amnesty International urge the Security Council to state clearly:

* That there will be no impunity for crimes against humanity and gross human rights violations committed in 1999 and during the time of Indonesian occupation (1975-1999);

* That the broadest consultation possible is conducted involving all relevant stakeholders in order to plan the post-UNMIT UN presence in Timor-Leste; human rights monitoring should be integral to that presence after 2012;

* That UNMITs Serious Crimes Investigation Team will complete all investigations with a view to?proceeding with judicial prosecutions in the future, and that sufficient time and resources will be?provided for this. The Council should further call on the governments of Timor-Leste and Indonesia to cooperate fully with the investigations;

*That the UN will support the development of a strategy for arresting and prosecuting those charged with crimes committed between 1975 and 1999, including in situations where suspects return to Timor-Leste, to make sure that those defendants are taken into custody and are brought before the courts promptly;

* That the Timorese government should implement the recommendations of the report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR) and the report of the Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF), and encourage the Timorese Parliament to debate and enact at the earliest opportunity two draft laws providing for a national reparations programme and a Public Memory Institute in accordance with international law and standards;

* That the Indonesian government should fully co-operate with an international criminal tribunal, the national courts of Timor-Leste or national courts in other countries in their efforts to investigate and prosecute persons suspected of crimes in Timor-Leste between 1975 and 1999, including by entering into extradition and mutual legal assistance agreements with Timor-Leste and other governments.

We hope that you will consider and express support for these recommendations.
Yours sincerely,

Luis de Oliveira
Director, Judicial System Monitoring Programme (JSMP),Timor-Leste

Haris Azhar National Coordinator,
KontraS (The Commission for the Disappeared Victims of Violence), Indonesia

Renzo Pomi
Amnesty International Representative at the United Nations

Document available in Bahasa Indonesia

Leader warns of 'wasted' vote in Timor's democratic frenzy

East Timor's President Jose Ramos-Horta said Wednesday that many Timorese will waste their vote in a presidential election next month if they back one of the explosion of small parties in contention.
But East Timor's independence hero and Nobel Peace Prize winner also admitted he has taken flak for warning people off some of the marginal candidates among the 13 -- including himself -- who want to lead the country.
Ramos-Horta told the UN Security Council about chaotic Timorese-style democracy as he hailed changes since deadly unrest in 2006 forced him to appeal for a UN peacekeeping force to be sent.
The meeting was held to formalize plans to end the peacekeeping mission this year -- East Timor is now held up as a nation-building success following help from the United Nations and its neighbors.
But on top of the 13 candidates for the March 13 presidential election there are also 24 registered parties for a legislative election.
"Twenty-four political parties in a country of one million," Ramos-Horta told UN Security Council envoys.
Security Council Meets on Timor-Leste
Jose Ramos-Horta, President of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste,
addresses the Security Council's meeting on the situation in his country.
22 February 2012
United Nations, New York
UN Photo/JC Mcllwaine

"I always tell people that the United States, a country of 300 million, a superpower, has two parties, Indonesia a country of 250 million has five parties in parliament.
"I can only hope that the electorate is wiser than the aspiring politicians and cast their votes on a handful of the better-known political parties to ensure stable, functioning majorities," he told the council.
"Because I have talked ad nauseum about this issue in my country I have not earned the sympathy of the aspiring politicians with my frequent blunt appeals to voters not to waste their votes on the new smaller political parties."
The Timor government is now negotiating a new accord for a UN political presence in the country after the remaining peacekeepers leave this year. Ramos-Horta said the new government would make the decision.
The elections will be held as the country marks the tenth anniversary of its independence from Indonesia. Ramos-Horta said that when he appealed for UN help in 2006, as foreign minister, the country was "racing toward the edge of an abyss."
He said the crisis could have been averted but blamed it on the growing pains of a new state.
Ramos-Horta praised Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand and others for sending peacekeeping troops and giving other help. Today "Dili is a bustling city, full of life. Today it is peace that is palpable," he said.
East Timor now hopes to soon join the Association of Southeast Asian nations and the Security Council was to pass a resolution on Thursday extending the UN mission's peacekeeping mandate for what should be a final time.
Source: AFP

Timor-Leste has made significant progress towards peace and stability – UN envoy

Special Representative Ameerah Haq. UN Photo/Ryan Brown
22 February 2012 – 
Timor-Leste has made significant progress in strengthening national peace and stability, the United Nations envoy for the country told the Security Council today, noting that preparations for presidential elections next month and legislative polls later in the year are going smoothly.

Ameerah Haq, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), told the Council in a briefing that 13 candidates, including two women, have been approved to run in the presidential election scheduled for 17 March.

The peacekeeping mission is due to wind up at the end of this year and Ms. Haq urged the Council to extend its current mandate, which is due to end next week, until 31 December. The Secretary-General will, after consulting with the Government formed after the elections, submit a report to the Council on his suggestions on UNMIT’s anticipated withdrawal and the scope of the UN’s future presence in Timor-Leste, she said.
“2012 is a critical year for Timor-Leste, marked by several key anniversaries, including the tenth anniversary of the restoration of independence,” said Ms. Haq.

“I am counting on this year giving us the opportunity to celebrate peaceful elections, an orderly transition to a new Government, continued stability and security and further development of PNTL [national police] technical capacities,” she said.

She said electoral management institutions are striving to ensure transparent and fair polls, stressing that their capacities have increased since 2007, resulting in decreasing levels of UN support.

“Still, the United Nations continues to provide integrated technical assistance through the joint UNDP [UN Development Programme] and UNMIT electoral support team,” said Ms. Haq.

She said presidential candidates and political party leaders have issued constructive messages about the need for peaceful elections, saying the messages are crucial to maintain public confidence in the elections and to ensure political stability.

The PNTL, with the support of UNMIT police, is getting ready to provide security during the electoral period, Ms. Haq told the Council. Both police services and other security forces have held theoretical and practical exercises to improve their readiness to maintain security during the elections, she said.

Timor-Leste’s President José Ramos-Horta, who also addressed the Council, said the political situation in his country has been “remarkably free of tension” in recent years.

“Ours is an open society. Transparency of our public life is a process that we set upon ourselves to promote and to deepen with the assistance of the international community,” he said.

On the UN presence in Timor-Leste after UNMIT’s departure, Mr. Ramos-Horta said that the emerging consensus is that the Organization’s role could include support to further strengthen democratic institutions, capacity-building on security, particularly the national police, as well as continued assistance in areas such as governance, justice and human rights.

Source: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=41336

10 midwives head for Timor Leste

The Jakarta Post | Tue, 02/21/2012 9:03 AM

JAKARTA: The National Agency for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers (BNP2TKI) has dispatched 10 midwives to Timor Leste to promote close cooperation between the nations in the healthcare sector. 

The midwives departed for Dili, Timor Leste, from Denpasar, Bali, on Monday, the BNP2TKI said in a statement.

On behalf of the Indonesian government, the agency’s deputy head for placement, Ade Adam Noch officially handed-over the midwives to Antonio Araujo Da Silva, an official from Timor Leste’s consulate in Denpasar.

“By using government to government scheme, Indonesia has been sending healthcare workers, especially midwives, to Timor Leste since 2011. In the first dispatch, we sent 6 midwives to the country,” said Ade. 

He said the midwives, who came from several regions, had passed competency and skill tests conducted by the BNP2TKI on Jan.31.


Lian Nasional sira iha Timor-Leste

Husi Estanislau S. Saldanha, Staf Dosenti ho Peskizador iha Center for Applied Research and Policy Studies (CARPS), DIT

Ohin loron mosu polemika makas iha Timor-Leste konaba uza lian materna hodi hanorin labarik sira foin hahu eskola. Polemika nee mosu tanba UNESCO ho Ministeriu Edukasaun atu halao projetu pilotu lian materna iha distritu tolu: Lautem, Manatuto ho Oecusse. Grupu ida konkorda atu hanorin labarik sira hahu eskola uza lian materna tanba fasilita labarik sira hodi aprende konseitu baziku, aprende lian ofisial ho hametin lian materna nudar kultura ho identidade nasional ida. Grupu seluk la konkorda tanba tuir sira nia hanoin hanorin uza lian materna hanesan politika foer husi liur nian hodi harahun unidade nasional, hamosu diskriminasaun ho sukuizmu. Ka hanorin uza lian materna bele hanesan malisan ida iha edukasaun hanesan temi husi Pe. Martinho Gusmao iha artigu nebee publika iha Forum Haksesuk. Artigu badak nee hakarak hatur uluk konseitu lia materna, klarifika diskursus nebee sala konaba introdusaun lian materna, ho haree nia importansia uza hodi hanorin labarik sira foin hahu eskola.

Sa Ida Mak Lian Materna?

Badauluk, hau hakarak esplika oituan sa ida mak lian inan (ka lingua materna)? Nunee atu “haklot” diskusaun ita nian nebee bele extende sein rohan tanba deit interpretasaun termu la hanesan ka interpretasaun lateral (interpretasaun tuir idak-idak nia hakarak).

Tuir Cambridge Dictionary Online, lian materna katak lian dauluk nebee aprende momentu sei kiik, laos nebee aprende iha eskola ka boot ona (The first language that you learn when you are a baby, rather than a language learned at school or as an adult). Iha Wikipedia mos hatoo katak lian materna hanesan lian ida nebee aprende uluk (the language (s) one learned first...), ka lian nebee identifika ho ema sira nebee kualia nee (the language (s) one identifies with/as a speaker of), ka lian nebee hatene diak (the language (s) one knows best) ka lian ida nebee uza beibeik (the language (s) one uses most).

Nunee lian materna mak lian nebee labarik sira aprende uluk, ka lian nebee labarik sira lor-loron kualia ho nia inan-aman ka ho ema seluk ka lian nebee labarik sira hatene diak liu. Tanba nee, lian materna ba labarik balu iha Uatulari mak Makasae ho Naueti; iha Distritu Lautem mak Fataluku, Makeleru, Makasae; iha Bobonaro mak Bunak, Kemak ho Tetun Terik; iha Oecusse mak Baekenu, no Ainaro mak Mambai ho seluk tan. Iha parte seluk, labarik sira husi inan-aman mai husi distritu no hela iha Dili, sira la koalia ona sira nia inan-aman nia lian materna, no lor-loron sira kualia Tetun ho inan-aman ho ema seluk. Maka labarik sira nee nia lian materna mak Tetun, maske nia inan-aman nia lian materna seluk. Ida nee importante hodi hatene tanba iha persepsaun balu katak labarik sira nia lian materna mak lian materna inan-aman nian.

Uza Lian Materna Hodi Hanorin ka Hanorin Lian Materna?

Ema barak interpreta sala konaba projetu pilotu nebee sei halao iha distritu tolu. Sira interpreta sala tanba sira la le didiak kontiudu konseitu projektu pilotu nee. Sira hanoin projetu nee atu hanorin lian materna. Nunee sira la fiar projetu nee sei hetan susesu. Tanba iha Timor Leste lian barak, rekursu limitadu, lian materna seidauk sistimatizadu ho razaun seluk. Aat liu tan sira balu dehan hanorin lia materna sei harahun unidade nasional, hamosu sukuizmu ho instabilidade nasional. Ka dehan politika foer ema liur nian hodi fahe Timor oan no troka lian ofisial.

Hau hanoin projetu pilotu nee laos hanorin lian materna maibe uza lian materna hodi fasilita labarik sira foin hahu eskola atu aprende. Labarik sira foin hahu eskola liu-liu iha area sub-distritu rural barak mak la hatene Tetun ho Portugues alias sira kualia deit sira nia lian materna. Nunee susar tebes hanorin sira ho Tetun no Portuguese. Karik obriga uza Tetun ho Portugues dala barak halo eskola ladun atraktivu, no labarik sira iha tendensia dekora deit, no la hatene kontiudu materia nebee hanorin. Nia implikasaun mak numeru labarik sira nebee para eskola bele aumenta.

Belun balu dehan, iha Portugues nia tempu, hanorin labarik sira ho Portugues diak hela, ho ohin loron halo ema matenek barak, no agora halo nusa mak uza Tetun ho Portugues ladiak fali? Hau dehan metodu hanorin uluk oinseluk, uluk uza aprosimasaun hanorin kolonial nebee violentu no kontra direitus ema nian. Uluk la uza metodo dialogu maibe liu husi impozisaun. Mestri sira obriga labarik sira aprende ho Portugues. Bainhira labarik sira kualia lian seluk sira baku, tebe, basa, hanehan kadeira ka meza ba labrik sira nia ain ou liman fuan ou haruka hakneak oras ba oras. Se mak uluk eskola iha tempu Portugues nian, konserteza sira hatene saida mak palmatoria, rota, ai-sanak ka sukaer sanak. Labarik sira la ba eskola, administrador postu ho sefi suku bolu inan aman sira hodi siak ka baku. Esperiensia pesoal ho observasaun hau nian durante eskola iha Eskola Primaria Uatulari iha tempu Portuguese nian hatudu ida nee. Labarik balu tauk la ba eskola ka hili dalan para eskola tamba tauk mestri sira halo torturas fizikas hasoru sira. Balu ba nafatin duni eskola, tamba tauk inan-aman baku ou obriga mak ba eskola maski labarik sira hetan tiha ona trauma iha eskola tamba torturas sira nebee mestri sira halo ba sira. No hau fiar meius nee iha mos fatin seluk. Metodu hanorin nee halo labarik sira la iha opsaun, sira tenki obriga aan hodi aprende ho kualia Portugues.

Iha tempu agora, metodu hanorin “obrigatoriu ho violentu” la serve ona. Tanba metodu nee kontra direitus umanus ema ho labarik sira nian nebee konsagra iha Konstituisaun RDTL ho konvensaun internasional direitus ema ho labarik sira nian. Nunee mestri sira tenki buka meius diak halo eskola sai atrativa, ho estimula labarik sira interese ba eskola hodi aprende, no evita labarik sira para sedu eskola. Mos metodu hanorin violentu bele transfere deit karakter violentu ba labarik sira. Nunee labarik sira haree violensia nee hanesan buat ida baibain, nebee eventualmente bele kontribui hodi forma karakter violentu iha sosiedade nia laran. Maka uza lian materna hodi hanorin labarik sira sei sai hanesan meius ida hodi halo eskola ho metodu hanorin atrativa ba labarik sira.

Importansia Uza Lian Materna Hodi Hanorin

Estudu barak ona hatudu rezultadu diak tebes ba labarik sira foin hahu eskola bainhira hanorin uza lian materna. Uza lian materna hodi hanorin sei tulun labarik sira tama ho susesu iha eskola (Kosonen, 2005), inan-aman sira fasil komunika ho mestri sira no partisipa iha prosesu aprendizajem labarik sira nian (Benson, 2002), benefisia grupu disvantajen sira, inklui sira nebee iha area rural ho komunidade indijena sira (Hovens, 2002), prestasaun akademiku diak, ladun repete materia nebee simu (UNESCO, 2005 ho Boonroj, 2010). Bainhira labarik sira hatene diak lian materna, sira aprende lian seluk lais liu tan (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2004, Cummins, --- ho Frankfurt international School/FIS,---). Nunee mos sei halo labarik sira fiar an (confidence), sinti iha harga diri (self-esteem) ho apresia nia identidade nebee uniku iha sosiedade multikultural (Sanedeera, --- ho Boonroj, 2010).

Rezultadu estudu sira nee mos bele hatan argumentu sira katak uza lian materna sei habeik ho halo labarik sira nia kapasidade ba lian ofisial ka lian seluk sei kiik nebee sei difikulta sira hetan servisu, eskola ho konvivensia internasional. Razaun sira nee kontraditoriu ho situasaun aktual labarik sira foin hahu eskola nebee sei la eskola ho termu sientifiku aas, seidauk hatene lee ho hakerek no dok tebes husi “idade servisu”. Iha nee, metodu hanorin apropriadu liu maka uza meius hanorin halimar (learning and teaching by playing methods), ho simulasaun via komunikasaun verbal ho audio-vizual (oral communication, and simulation and audio-visual methods). Nunee fasil tebes esplika konseitu baziku ho aprende lian seluk dala ida deit uza lian materna. Tanba nee, materia hanorin bele uza materia nebee iha, maske iha lian seluk. Tanba transferensia materia sira nee ba labarik via komunikasaun oral ho audio-vizual nebee mestri sira halo via lian materna nebee labarik sira hatene diak. Husi estudu sira nee mos justifika oinsa labarik sira hetan notas diak tebes uza lian materna, maske teste uza lian ofisial ho exame tuir standar nasional.

Edukasaun mak meius apropriadu ho efetivu hodi valoriza ho prezerva lian ho kultura ida. Tanba nee, estadu valoriza ho dezenvolve lian Tetun ho lian materna (Artigu 13 Sec 2 Konstituisaun RDTL) sei efetivu liu via uza hodi hanorin iha eskola, ka ba labarik sira foin hahu eskola. Estadu mos tenki rekuinese ho garante sistima ensinu baziku universal, obrigatoriu ho posibilidade gratuita ba sidadaun sira (Konstituisaun RDTL Artigu 59 Sek 1), no afirma ho valoriza personalidade ho patrimoniu kultural (Artigu 6 Sek g Konstituisaun RDTL). Nee signifika katak Konstituisaun RDTL nudar lei inan ba lei hot-hotu fo dalang ho obriga governu hodi valoriza ho dezenvolve Tetun ho lian materna via meius nebee apropriadu ho efetivu liu, no hamosu meius atrativu hodi estimula labarik sira eskola ho aprende matenek ho valor umana diak seluk iha nia patrimoniu kultural (inklui lian materna) nudar identidade sira nian. Tanba nee, ita la bele dehan hanorin labarik sira uza lian materna sei kontra lei.

Bainhira hanorin labarik sira uza sira nia lian, laos halo sira dezenvolve deit kapasidade intelijensia, maibe halo sira sei hadomi mos sira nia lian, kultura, ho ema seluk nian. Hatoman labarik sira hodi valoriza ema seluk nia lian ho kultura sei halo labarik sira bainhira boot, sei hakesi aan iha unidade ida nebee fundamenta iha diversidade, eventualmente kontribui ba paz ho prosperiedade iha sosiedade ida (Kadel, 2010). Nunee edukasaun halo labarik sira sai matenek ho iha kompetitividade aas iha nia kultura ho identidade laran. Edukasaun la bele halo labarik sira sai fali ema seluk. Ka tuir Anacleto Ribeiro (2012) edukasaun tenki hanorin Timor oan sai Timor oan diak ida, laos hanorin Timor oan sai fali malae oan diak ida. Nunee uza lian materna hodi hanorin labarik sira foin hahu eskola nia argumentu sei antagoniku ho razaun ema balun nian katak politika nee sei harahun unidade nasional, hamsou sukuizmu ho habeik labarik sira.


Politika lian materna nebee atu introdus husi Ministeriu Edukasaun ho UNESCO foka ba oinsa uza lian materna hodi fasilita labarik sira foin hahu eskola atu aprende, laos hanorin lian materna. Tanba labarik sira iha area balu la hatene Tetun ho Portugues. Nunee lian materna bele uza hodi halo tranzisaun gradual labarik sira husi aprende iha lian materna ba Tetun ho Portugues sein elimina prosesu hanorin/aprende konseitu baziku iha inisiu eskolaridade. Mos halo inan-aman sira partisipa iha prosesu aprende labarik sira nian. Nunee lian materna sei la troka Tetun ho Portugues nudar lian ofisial iha sistema edukasaun tomak, sei la ameasa unidade nasional, la hamosu sukuizmu ho habeik labarik sira, no la kontra lei ruma, tanba Konstituisaun RDTL (Art. 6, Art. 13 ho Art. 59) nudar lei inan fo dalang ba ida nee.

Estudu barak ona hatudu katak hanorin uza lian materna ba labarik sira foin hahu eskola sei tulun labarik sira aprende lalais konseitu baziku, performa akademiku diak, ho aprende lian seluk lais, dezenvolve kapasidade kognitivu, halo labarik sira abitua moris iha ambiente diversidade nian. Maske nunee, hanorin uza lian materna iha Timor Leste presiza estudu hodi haree nia efetividade. Projetu pilotu hanesan metodu sientifiku ida hodi analiza metodu, prosesu ho rezultadu politika nee nian. Bainhira rezultadu diak ho efetivu, politika nee bele kontinua, maibe rezultadu ladiak bele hapara.* Artigu ne'e publika iha Timor News Network ho lisensa husi hakerek na'in. Artigu nee mos publika ona iha STL ho Forum Haksesuk.