Timor-Leste Makes Montreal Protocol First Global Environmental Agreement to Achieve Universal Ratification

Ozone Treaty Anniversary Gifts Big Birthday Present to Human Health and Combating of Climate Change 

Timor-Leste Makes Montreal Protocol First Global Environmental Agreement to Achieve Universal Ratification

Nairobi, 16 September 2009--A treaty to protect the ozone layer, which shields all life on Earth from deadly levels of ultra violet rays, has scored a first in the history of international environmental agreements. 

Today Mr. Xanana Gusmão, the Prime Minister of the young Pacific nation of Timor-Leste, announced that it had ratified the Montreal Protocol making this the first environmental agreement to achieve universal participation by 196 parties. 

“Timor-Leste is very pleased to be joining the rest of the world in the fight against the depletion of the ozone layer and the effort towards its recovery. We are proud to be part of this important process to protect the ozone layer and undertake to implement and comply with the Montreal Protocol like all other States that preceded us in this important journey,” Mr. Gusmão said. 

The historic announcement, made on the UN’s International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, is the latest in a rapidly evolving list of achievements for the ozone treaties. 

The Montreal Protocol, established to phase-out the pollutants that were damaging the planet’s protective shield, will in just three months’ time have completely retired close to 100 chemicals linked with ozone damage. 

Today, as the sun rises in Australasia swiftly onto Timor Leste before setting on Hawaii, United States—one of the first nations to ratify—countries will be marking not only the recovery of the ozone layer.  They will also be celebrating the unique contribution that the Montreal Protocol has, and is continuing to contribute, to combating other key challenges including climate change. 

Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), said:” The ratification by Timor Leste makes this special day even more special and a signal that when the world fully and wholly unites around an environmental challenge there can be multiple and transformative effects”.

“Without the Montreal Protocol and its Vienna Convention, atmospheric levels of ozone-depleting substances would have increased tenfold by 2050 which in turn could have led to up to 20 million more cases of skin cancer and 130 million more cases of eye cataracts, not to speak of damage to human immune systems, wildlife and agriculture,” he added.

“Today we in addition know that some of the same gases contribute to climate change. By some estimates, the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances has since 1990 contributed a delay in global warming of some seven to 12 years underlining that a dollar spent on ozone has paid handsomely across other environmental challenges,” said Mr Steiner.

Marco González, Executive Secretary of the Ozone Secretariat which is hosted by UNEP, said the focus was now switching from the original gases such as chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) to their replacement gases known as HCFCs and HFCs for uses in refrigerators, foams and flame retardants.

In 2007 governments agreed to accelerate the freeze and phase-out hydrochloflurocarbons or HCFCs—explicitly for their climate change impacts.

The maximum benefits here are only likely to occur if this goes hand in hand with the introduction of more energy efficient equipment that can work with substances that have low or zero global warming potential. 

The focus is now also rapidly shifting to Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs). This year scientists, reporting in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggested that if these became the replacement substances of choice, the climate impacts could be serious. 

The scientists argue that HFC use could climb sharply in the coming years in products such as insulation foams air conditioning units and refrigeration as replacements. 

Conversely, rapid action to freeze and to cut emissions annually alongside fostering readily available alternatives could see HFC emissions fall to under one Gigatonne by 2050. 

“Importantly, governments last year requested the Executive Secretaries of the Montreal Protocol and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to cooperate more closely on these issues and this was taken forward in 2009 in the spirit of One UN,” said Mr González. 

In November in Port Ghalib, Egypt, governments will meet under the Montreal Protocol to chart the future directions for the treaty including its role in combating climate change. 

Mr González emphasized that “this historic meeting, hosted by the Governmet of Egypt, will be the first to bring together the highest number ever of participating States under an international environmental protection treaty.“ 

These discussions will come just days before the key climate meeting in Copenhagen where nations are being urged to Seal the Deal on significant emissions reductions backed by support for adaptation for vulnerable countries and communities. 

The story of the ozone layer also underlines that sustainably managing the environment is less costly and time-consuming than repairing damage once it has been done. Even with the swift and decisive action taken by governments under the Montreal Protocol, the Earth’s protective shield is likely to take another 40 years to 50 years to fully recover. 
Note to Editors: 

About the Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol focuses on the protection of the earth's ozone layer. This treaty has enabled both developed and developing countries to achieve a near total phase-out in the production and use of ozone depleting substances.

Because most ozone depleting substances are also potent global warming gasses, the actions taken under the Montreal Protocol have contributed significantly to the global effort to address climate change.

Interesting facts about the Montreal Protocol

·        The Montreal Protocol has achieved universal participation by all states in the world, the number of participating States is 196, an achievement unprecedented by any treaty;

·        It is estimated that without the Protocol, by the year 2050 ozone depletion would have risen to at least 50% in the northern hemisphere’s mid latitutes and 70% in the southern mid latitudes, about 10 times worse than current levels;

·        The Montreal Protocol is estimated to have prevented: 
ü        19 million more cases of non-melanoma cancer 
ü        1.5 million more cases of melanoma cancer 
ü        130 million more cases of eye cataracts 
·        Ninety seven per cent of all ozone depleting substances controlled by the global treaty known as the Montreal Protocol have been phased out – but what remains is still a challenge to eliminate;

·        Global observations have verified that atmospheric levels of key ozone depleting substances are going down and it is believed that with implementation of the Protocol’s provisions the ozone layer should return to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075;

·        In 2003, political recognition of the Protocol came in the statement of then United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, who termed the Montreal Protocol “perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date”.

The Ozone Layer

The Ozone layer protects the earth’s inhabitants from harmful UV radiation and is essential for life on Earth, as it screens out lethal UV-B radiation.

Increased UV-B from ozone depletion can lead to: 
·        More melanoma and non-melanoma skin-cancers 
·        More eye cataracts 
·        Weakened immune systems – this may contribute to viral reactivation and a reduction of effectiveness of vaccines

·        Reduced plant yields, changes in plant growth and form

·        Damage to ocean eco-systems and reduced fishing yields

·        Damage to wood and plastics

For interviews and additional information please contact: 
Nick Nuttall: Off. +254 20 7623084 Cel.+ 254 733632755 E-mail: nick.nuttall@unep.org 
Maria Saldanha: Off. +254 20 7625129 Cel. +254 713601240 E-mail: maria.saldanha@unep.org 


Aniversáriu Tratadu Ozonu fó benefísiu boot ba Saúde Umana no Kombate Mudansa Klimátika 

Timor-Leste halo Protokolu Montreal sai Akordu Ambientál Globál Dahuluk ne'ebé konsege hetan Ratifikasaun Universál 

Nairobi, loron 16 fulan Setembru tinan 2009—Tratadu ida atu proteje kamada ozonu, ne’ebé proteje moris hotu-hotu iha mundu husi nivel aas radiasaun ultravioleta ne'ebé halo buat hotu-hotu mate, konsege hetan buat foun ida husi istória akordu ambiente internasionál. 

Iha loron ida-ne’e Sr. Xanana Gusmão, Primeiru  Ministru nasaun joven Timor-Leste ne'ebé lokaliza iha tasi Pasífiku, anunsia  katak nasaun ne’e ratifika tiha ona Protokolu Montreal hodi nune’e halo akordu ambientál dahuluk ne'ebé konsege hetan  partisipasaun universál husi nasaun 196. 

“Timor-Leste laran-ksolok bele tama hamutuk ho nasaun sira seluk iha mundu atu luta kontra estragu kamada ozonu no esforsu ba ninia rekuperasaun.  Ami sente orgullu hodi sai nu’udar parte iha prosesu importante ne’e atu proteje kamada ozonu no promete atu implementa no kumpre Protokolu Montreal hanesan Estadu sira seluk hotu ne’ebé la’o molok ami iha viajen importante ne’e”, hateten Sr. Gusmão. 

Anúnsiu istóriku ida-ne’e, ne’ebé halo iha Loron Internasionál ONU nian ba Prezervasaun Kamada Ozonu, hanesan progresu ikus entre progresu oioin foin daudaun ne’e relasiona ho tratadu ozonu sira. 

Protokolu Montreal estabelese atu gradualmente hapara uzu substánsia poluente oioin ne’ebé estraga eskudu protetór planeta ne’e nian, sei iha tempu fulan tolu de’it nia laran kompletamente hapara uzu kímiku besik atus ida ne'ebé ligadu ho estragu ozonu. 

Ohin loron, enkuantu loro matan sa’e iha Australasia no muda lalais ba Timor Leste molok monu iha Hawaii, Estadus Unidus — nasaun ida entre sira ne’ebé ratifika uluk liu protokolu ne’e — nasaun sira la’ós de’it marka rekuperasaun kamada ozonu.  Maibé, nasaun sira sei mós selebra kontribuisaun únika ne'ebé Protokolu Montreal halo tiha ona no kontinua halo daudaun, hodi kombate dezafiu boot sira seluk, inklui mudansa klimátika. 

Achim Steiner, Vise Sekretáriu Jerál ONU nian no Diretór Ezekutivu Programa Ambientál ONU nian (UNEP), dehan:” Ratifikasaun husi Timor-Leste halo loron espesiál ne’e sai espesiál liu tan no haruka sinál katak mundu tomak iha unidade atu tau matan ba dezafiu ambientál ida ne'ebé bele hamosu efeitu barabarak no halo transformasaun”.

“Se la iha Protocol Montreal no ninia Konvensaun Viena, nivel substánsia ne'ebé estraga ozonu iha atmosfera bele aumenta dala sanulu to’o tinan 2050 ne'ebé tuirfalimai bele hamosu kazu kankru kulit millaun 20 tan no kazu moras-katarata iha matan millaun 130 tan, aleinde estraga sistema umanitáriu umanu, vida selvajen no agrikultura,” nia hatutan.

“Ohin loron ami mós hatene katak gas balu ne'ebé refere ona kontribui ba mudansa klimátika. Tuir estimativa balu, prosesu halakon gradualmente substánsia ne'ebé estraga ozonu dezde 1990 kontribui atu atraza akesimentu globál ho maizumenus tinan 7 to’o 12, ne'ebé subliña katak osan ne'ebé uza atu tau matan ba problema ozonu fó benefísiu boot tebes ba dezafiu ambientál seluseluk,” Sr. Steiner hatete.

Marco González, Sekretáriu Ezekutivu husi Sekretariadu Ozonu ne'ebé organiza husi UNEP, dehan katak agora daudaun sei muda foku husi gas orijinál hanesan klorofluorokarbonetu (CFCs) ba fali gas saseluk hanaran HCFCs no HFCs ne'ebé uza iha jeleira, furin no substánsia ne'ebé hamate ahi.

Iha 2007 governu sira konkorda atu aselera prosesu gradualmente hapara idrokloflurokarbonetu ka HCFCs—esplisitamente tanba sira-nia impaktu ba mudansa klimátika.

Benefísiu másimu só bele hetan bainhira hala’o hamutuk ho uzu ekipamentu ne'ebé enerjetikamente efisiente tan ne'ebé bele funsiona ho substánsia ne'ebé la iha, ka iha uitoan de’it, potensiál atu hamosu impaktu ba akesimentu globál. 

Agora daudaun foku muda lailais ba Idrofluorokarbonetu (HFCs). Tinan ne’e, sientista sira, ne'ebé reporta ba Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, sujere katak se substánsia sira ne’e sai saseluk ne'ebé ema hili, bele hamosu impaktu boot ba klima. 

Sientista sira argumenta katak uzu HFC bele sa’e maka’as iha tempu besik oin mai iha produtu hanesan furin izoladór iha aparellu ár-kondisionadu no jeleira sira. 

Iha parte seluk, asaun rápidu atu hamenus no hapara emisaun tinan-tinan hamutuk ho promove alternative ne'ebé disponivel bele halo emisaun HFC tun ho montante Jigatonelada ida to’o tinan 2050. 

“Mak importante, governu sira tinan kotuk husu Sekretáriu Ezekutivu sira husi Protokolu Montreal no husi Konvensaun Enkuadramentu ONU nian kona-ba Mudansa Klimátika hodi koopera metin liu atu tau matan ba asuntu hirak-ne’e, no sira-nia pedidu ne’e la’o ba oin iha 2009 tuir espíritu ONU ida de’it,” Sr González hatete. 

Iha Novembru iha Port Ghalib, Ejitu, governu sira sei hasoru malu tuir Protokolu Montreal hodi trasa diresaun futura ba tratadu ne’e inklui ninia knaar atu kombate mudansa klimátika. 

Sr González subliña katak “soru-mutu istóriku ida-ne’e, ne'ebé organiza husi governu Ejitu, nu'udar primeira reuniaun ne'ebé halibur númeru boboot hanesan ne’e husi estadu parte iha tratadu internasionál kona-ba protesaun ambiente.” 

Diskusaun sira ne’e sei hala’o loron hirak de’it molok reuniaun xave ida kona-ba klima iha Kopeñaga ne'ebé nasaun sira hetan enkorajamentu atu hakotu-lia kona-ba atu hamenus emisaun ho númeru signifikativu, ho apoiu ba adaptasaun iha nasaun no komunidade vulneravel sira. 

Istória kamada ozonu mós subliña katak halo jestaun sustentavel ba ambiente barata liu no ladún gasta tempu bainhira kompara ho esforsu atu hadi’ak estragu ne'ebé halo tiha ona. Mezmu ho asaun lailais no desizivu ne'ebé governu sira halo tuir Protokolu Montreal, mundu nia eskudu protetora sei presiza karik tinan 40 to’o 50 atu rekupera totalmente. 
Nota ba Editór sira: 

Kona-ba Protokolu Montreal

Protokolu Montreal foka ba protesaun mundu nia kamada ozonu. Tratadu ne’e ajuda tantu nasaun dezenvolvidu komu nasaun ne'ebé sei dezenvolve hela atu konsege hamenus gradualmente to’o kuaze hapara produsaun no uzu materiál ne'ebé estraga ozonu.

Tanba maioria materiál ne'ebé estraga ozonu mós hamosu gas perigozu ne'ebé halo manas iha mundu tomak, asaun sira ne'ebé foti tuir Protokolu Montreal fó kontribuisaun signifikativu ba esforsu globál atu fó atensaun ba mudansa klimátika.

Faktu interesante kona-ba Protokolu Montreal

·        Protokolu Montreal hetan partisipasaun universál husi nasaun hotu-hotu iha mundu, no númeru nasaun sira ne'ebé partisipa mak 196. Molok ida-ne’e seidauk iha tratadu ida ne'ebé hetan partisipasaun totál hanesan ne’e;

·        Tuir estimativa, sei la iha Protokolu ida-ne’e, iha tinan 2050 estragu ozonu bele sa’e to’o pelumenus 50% iha latitude média emisfériu norte nian no 70% iha latitude média emisfériu súl nian, ne'ebé aat liu maizumenus dala sanulu bainhira kompara ho nivel sira agora daudaun;

·        Tuir estimativa Protokolu Montreal prevene ona: 
ü        Kazu kankru naun-melanoma millaun 19 tan 
ü        Kazu kankru melanoma millaun 1.5 tan 
ü        Kazu moras-katarata iha matan millaun 130 tan 
·        97% husi materiál ne'ebé estraga ozonu ne'ebé kontrola husi tratadu globál ne'ebé hanaran Protokolu Montreal gradualmente la uza tan – maibé sei iha dezafiu atu elimina materiál ne'ebé sei iha;

·        Observasaun globál verifika tiha katak nivel materiál prinsipál ne'ebé estraga ozonu iha atmosfera tun hela, no iha fiar katak ho implementasaun provizaun sira husi protokolu ne’e, kamada ozonu iha tinan 2050 to’o 2075 bele filafali hanesan nivel sira ne'ebé iha molok-1980;

·        Iha 2003, iha rekoñesimentu polítiku kona-ba Protokolu ne’e liuhosi deklarasaun Sekretáriu Jerál ONU nian iha momentu ne’ebá Kofi Annan, ne'ebé mensiona Protokolu Montreal nu'udar “dalaruma akordu internasionál kona-ba ambiente ne'ebé hetan susesu boot liu hotu durante ne’e”.

Kamada Ozonu

Kamada ozonu proteje populasaun sira iha mundu husi radiasaun UV ne'ebé perigozu, no kamada ne’e esensiál ba buat hotu ne'ebé moris iha mundu, tanba ta’es radiasaun UV-B ne'ebé bele halo buat hotu mate.

Aumentu UV-B nu'udar rezultadu husi estragu ozonu bele hamosu:         
·        Kankru kulit melanoma no naun-melanoma nian barak liu 
·        Moras-katarata iha matan barak liu 
·        Sistema umanitáriu sai fraku – ida-ne’e bele reativasaun virál no hamenus vasina sira-nia efikásia

·        Hamenus kolleita no produsaun ai-moris, no hamosu mudansa ba kreximentu no forma ai-moris

·        Estraga ekosistema tasi nian no hamenus produsaun ikan

·        Estraga ai no plástika sira

Sei ita-boot hakarak entrevista ka hetan informasaun adisionál, favor ida kontakta: 
Nick Nuttall: Off. +254 20 7623084 Cel.+ 254 733632755 E-mail: nick.nuttall@unep.org 
Maria Saldanha: Off. +254 20 7625129 Cel. +254 713601240 E-mail: maria.saldanha@unep.org

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